Maths

### Find the(v) length of the latus rectum of each of the following ellipses. Given: $\frac{{{x}^{2}}}{{{a}^{2}}}+\frac{{{y}^{2}}}{{{b}^{2}}}=1$…(i) Since, $25>9$ So, above equation is of the form, $\frac{{{x}^{2}}}{{{a}^{2}}}+\frac{{{y}^{2}}}{{{b}^{2}}}=1$…(ii)...

### Express each of the following angles in radians – 36°

Answer: Formula: Angle in radians = $Angle\,in\,\deg \times \frac{\pi }{180}$ Therefore, Angle in radians =  $36\times \frac{\pi }{180}=\frac{\pi }{5}$

### Find the equation of a line parallel to the y – axis at a distance of (i) 6 units to its right (ii) 3 units to its left

Answer : (i) Equation of line parallel to y - axis is given by x = constant, as the x - coordinate of every point on the line parallel to y - axis is 6 i.e. constant. Now the point lies to the right...

### Differentiate the following functions with respect to x: As per the given question,

### It is required to seat 5 men and 4 women in a row so that the women occupy the even places. How many such arrangements are possible?

Given there are total $9\;people$ Women occupies even places that means they will be sitting on ${{2}^{nd}},\text{ }{{4}^{th}},\text{ }{{6}^{th}}and\text{ }{{8}^{th}}$  place where as men will be...

### Determine the number of 5-card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if each selection of 5 cards has exactly one king.

We have a deck of cards has $4\;kings.$ The numbers of remaining cards are $52.$ Ways of selecting a king from the deck $\Rightarrow {{~}^{4}}{{C}_{1}}=$ Ways of selecting the remaining $4\;cards$...

### In an examination, a question paper consists of 12 questions divided into two parts i.e., Part I and Part II, containing 5 and 7 questions, respectively. A student is required to attempt 8 questions in all, selecting at least 3 from each part. In how many ways can a student select the questions?

The student can choose $3$ questions from $part\;I$ and $5$ from $part\;II$ Or $4\;questions$ from $part\;I$ and $4$ from $part \;II$ $5$ questions from $part\;I$ and $3$ from $part \;II$

### The English alphabet has 5 vowels and 21 consonants. How many words with two different vowels and 2 different consonants can be formed from the alphabet?

We know that there are $5$ vowels and $21$ consonants in English alphabets. Choosing two vowels out of $5$ would be done in $^{5}{{C}_{2}}$ ways Choosing $2$ consonants out of $21$ can be done in...

### How many 3-digit numbers can be formed by using the digits 1 to 9 if no digit is repeated?

As per the given question,

### Evaluate: When (i) n = 6, r = 2 (ii) n = 9, r = 5

, Solution: As per the given question,

### Find x. If

Solution: As per the given question,

### Compute

Solution: As per the given question,

### Is 3! + 4! = 7!?

Consider LHS 3! +4! Computing left hand side, we get $\begin{array}{l} 3 !+4 !=(3 \times 2 \times 1)+(4 \times 3 \times 2 \times 1) \\ =6+24 \\ =30 \end{array}$ Again consider RHS and computing we...

### Distance between the two planes: 2x + 3y + 4z = 4 and 4x + 6y + 8z = 12 is A. 2 units B. 4 units C. 8 units D. 2/√29 units

Solution: It is known to us that the distance between two parallel planes $A x+B y+C z=d_{1}$ and $A x+B y+C z=d_{2}$ is given as...

### Prove that if a plane has the intercepts a, b, c and is at a distance of p units from the origin, then Solution: It is known to us that the distance of the point $\left(\mathrm{x}_{1}, \mathrm{y}_{1}, \mathrm{z}_{1}\right)$ from the plane $\mathrm{Ax}+\mathrm{By}+\mathrm{Cz}$ $=\mathrm{D}$ is given...

### Find the vector equation of the line passing through the point (1,2,-4) and perpendicular to the two lines: and Solution: The vector eq. of a line passing through a point with position vector $\vec{a}$ and parallel to a vector $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{b}}$ is...

### Find the vector equation of the line passing through and parallel to the planes and Solution: The vector eq. of a line passing through a point with position vector $\vec{a}$ and parallel to a vector $\vec{b}$ is $\vec{r}=\vec{a}+\lambda \vec{b}$ It is given that the line passes...

### Find the equation of the plane passing through (a, b, c) and parallel to the plane Solution: The eq. of a plane passing through $\left(x_{1}, y_{1}, z_{1}\right)$ and perpendicular to a line with direction ratios $A, B, C$ is given as...

### Find the vector equation of the line passing through (1, 2, 3) and perpendicular to the plane Solution: The vector eq. of a line passing through a point with position vector $\vec{a}$ and parallel to vector $\vec{b}$ is given as...

### If the lines  are perpendicular, find the value of .

Solution: It is known to us that the two lines $\frac{x-1}{3 k}=\frac{y-2}{1}=\frac{z-3}{-5} \text { and }$ $\frac{\mathrm{x}-1}{3 \mathrm{k}}=\frac{\mathrm{y}-2}{1}=\frac{\mathrm{z}-3}{-5}$ are...

### If and are the direction cosines of two mutually perpendicular lines, show that the direction cosines of the line perpendicular to both of these are Solution: Let's consider $l, m, n$ be the direction cosines of the line perpendicular to each of the given lines. Therefore, $ll_{1}+m m_{1}+n n_{1}=0 \ldots(1)$ And...

### Show that the line joining the origin to the point (2, 1, 1) is perpendicular to the line determined by the points (3, 5, –1), (4, 3, –1).

Solution: Let's consider $O A$ be the line joining the origin $(0,0,0)$ and the point $A(2,1,1)$. And let $B C$ be the line joining the points $B(3,5,-1)$ and $C(4,3,-1)$ Therefore the direction...

### In the following cases, find the distance of each of the given points from the corresponding given plane. Point Plane (a) (2, 3, -5) x + 2y – 2z = 9 (b) (-6, 0, 0) 2x – 3y + 6z – 2 = 0

Solution: (a) The length of perpendicular from the point $(2,3,-5)$ on the plane $x+2 y-2 z=9 \Rightarrow x+2 y-2 z-9=0$ is $\frac{\left|a x_{1}+b y_{1}+c z_{1}+d\right|}{\sqrt{a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}}}$...

### Find the vector and Cartesian equations of the planes (a) that passes through the point and the normal to the plane is (b) that passes through the point and the normal vector to the plane is Solution: (a) That passes through the point $(1,0,-2)$ and the normal to the plane is $\hat{\mathrm{i}}+\hat{\mathrm{j}}-\hat{\mathrm{k}}$ Let's say that the position vector of the point $(1,0,-2)$...

### In each of the following cases, determine the direction cosines of the normal to the plane and the distance from the origin. (a) 2x + 3y – z = 5 (b) 5y + 8 = 0

Solution: (a) $2 x+3 y-z=5$ It is given that The eq. of the plane, $2 x+3 y-z=5 \ldots$. (1) The direction ratio of the normal $(2,3,-1)$ Using the formula,...

### Find the shortest distance between the lines whose vector equations are and Solution: It is known to us that shortest distance between two lines $\vec{r}=\overrightarrow{a_{1}}+\lambda \overrightarrow{b_{1}}$ and $\vec{r}=\overrightarrow{a_{2}}+\mu \overrightarrow{b_{2}}$...

### Find the shortest distance between the lines and Solution: It is known to us that the shortest distance between two lines $\frac{x+1}{7}=\frac{y+1}{-6}=\frac{z+1}{1}$ and $\frac{x-3}{1}=\frac{y-5}{-2}=\frac{z-7}{1}$ is given as:...

### Find the shortest distance between the lines Solution: It is known to us that the shortest distance between two lines $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{r}}=\overrightarrow{\mathrm{a}_{1}}+\lambda \overrightarrow{\mathrm{b}_{1}}$ and...

### Show that the lines and are perpendicular to each other.

Solution: The equations of the given lines are $\frac{\mathrm{x}-5}{7}=\frac{\mathrm{y}+2}{-5}=\frac{\mathrm{z}}{1}$ and $\frac{\mathrm{x}}{1}=\frac{\mathrm{y}}{2}=\frac{\mathrm{z}}{3}$ Two lines...

### Find the values of p so that the lines and are at right angles.

Solution: The standard form of a pair of Cartesian lines is:...

### Find the angle between the following pairs of lines: (i) and (ii) and Solution: Let's consider $\theta$ be the angle between the given lines. If $\theta$ is the acute angle between $\vec{r}=\overrightarrow{a_{1}}+\lambda \overrightarrow{b_{1}}$ and...

### Find the vector and the Cartesian equations of the line that passes through the points (3, –2, –5), (3, –2, 6).

Solution: It is given that Let's calculate the vector form: The vector eq. of as line which passes through two points whose position vectors are $\vec{a}$ and $\vec{b}$ is...

### Find the vector and the Cartesian equations of the lines that passes through the origin and (5, –2, 3).

Solution: Given: The origin $(0,0,0)$ and the point $(5,-2,3)$ It is known to us that The vector eq. of as line which passes through two points whose position vectors are $\vec{a}$ and $\vec{b}$ is...

### The Cartesian equation of a line is Write its vector form.

Solution: It is given that The Cartesian equation is $\frac{x-5}{3}=\frac{y+4}{7}=\frac{z-6}{2} \ldots \text { (1) }$ It is known to us that The Cartesian eq. of a line passing through a point...

### Find the Cartesian equation of the line which passes through the point and parallel to the line given by Solution: It is given that The points $(-2,4,-5)$ It is known that Now, the Cartesian equation of a line through a point $\left(\mathrm{x}_{1}, \mathrm{y}_{1}, \mathrm{z}_{1}\right)$ and having...

### Find the equation of the line in vector and in Cartesian form that passes through the point with position vector and . is in the direction

Solution: Given: Vector equation of a line that passes through a given point whose position vector is $\vec{a}$ and parallel to a given vector $\vec{b}$ is $\vec{r}=\vec{a}+\lambda \vec{b}$ Let,...

### Find the equation of the line which passes through the point (1, 2, 3) and is parallel to the vector Solution: Given that, Line passes through the point $(1,2,3)$ and is parallel to the vector. It is known to us that Vector eq. of a line that passes through a given point whose position vector is...

### Show that the line through the points (4, 7, 8), (2, 3, 4) is parallel to the line through the points (–1, –2, 1), (1, 2, 5).

Solution: The points $(4,7,8),(2,3,4)$ and $(-1,-2,1),(1,2,5)$. Consider $A B$ be the line joining the points, $(4,7,8),(2,3,4)$ and $C D$ be the line through the points $(-1,-2$, 1), $(1,2,5)$. So...

### Show that the line through the points (1, –1, 2), (3, 4, –2) is perpendicular to the line through the points (0, 3, 2) and (3, 5, 6).

Solution: Given that The points $(1,-1,2),(3,4,-2)$ and $(0,3,2),(3,5,6)$. Let's consider $A B$ be the line joining the points, $(1,-1,2)$ and $(3,4,-2)$, and $C D$ be the line through the points...

### Show that the points (2, 3, 4), (–1, –2, 1), (5, 8, 7) are collinear.

Solution: If the direction ratios of two lines segments are proportional, then the lines are collinear. It is given that $\mathrm{A}(2,3,4), \mathrm{B}(-1,-2,1), \mathrm{C}(5,8,7)$ The direction...

### If a line has the direction ratios –18, 12, –4, then what are its direction cosines?

Solution: Given that, The direction ratios are $-18,12,-4$ Where, $a=-18, b=12, c=-4$ Consider the direction ratios of the line as $\mathrm{a}, \mathrm{b}$ and $\mathrm{c}$ Direction cosines are...

### Integrate the function in As per the given question, Let I =  =  =  =  =  =  =  =  =

### List all events associated with the random experiment of tossing of two coins. How many of them are elementary events?

According to the question, two coins are tossed once. We know, when two coins are tossed then the total number of possible outcomes are will be $2^2=4$ So, the Sample space is {HH, HT, TT, TH} ∴...

### For any two sets A and B, prove that: A‘ – B‘ = B – A

Answer: To show, A’ – B’ ⊆ B – A Consider, x ∈ A’ – B’ x ∈ A’ and x ∉ B’ [A ∩ A’ = ϕ] x ∉ A and x ∈ B x ∈ B – A x ∈ A’ – B’ ∴ A’ – B’ = B – A Thus,...

### For any two sets, prove that: (i) A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A (ii) A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A

Answers: (i) We know that, A ∪ (A ∩ B) [A ∪ A = A] (A ∪ A) ∩ (A ∪ B) ∴ A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A (ii) A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A We know that, (A ∩ A) ∪ (A ∩ B) [A ∩ A = A] ∴ A ∪ (A ∩ B) =...

### For three sets A, B, and C, show that (i) A ∩ B = A ∩ C need not imply B = C. (ii) A ⊂ B ⇒ C – B ⊂ C – A

Answers: (i)  Consider, A = {1, 2} B = {2, 3} C = {2, 4} A ∩ B = {2} A ∩ C = {2} Thus, A ∩ B = A ∩ C and B is not equal to C. (ii)  A ⊂ B C–B ⊂ C–A Consider, x ∈ C– B x ∈ C and x ∉ B x ∈ C and x ∉ A...

### For any two sets A and B, show that the following statements are equivalent: (i) A ∪ B = B (ii) A ∩ B = A

Answers: (i) A ∪ B = B Proving, (iii)=(iv) Let us take, A ∪ B = B A ∩ B = A. A ⊂ B and A ∩ B = A Thus, (iii)=(iv) is proved. (ii) A ∩ B = A Proving, (iv)=(i) Let us take, A ∩ B = A A ⊂ B A ∩ B = A...

### For any two sets A and B, show that the following statements are equivalent: (i) A ⊂ B (ii) A – B = ϕ

Answers: (i) A ⊂ B Proving, (i)=(ii) ( A ⊂ B) A–B = {x ∈ A: x ∉ B} All element of A is also an element of B ∴ A–B = ϕ Thus, (i)=(ii) Proved. (ii) A – B = ϕ Proving, (ii)=(iii) Let us take, A–B = ϕ...

### For any two sets A and B, prove that A ⊂ B ⇒ A ∩ B = A

Answer: A ⊂ B ⇒ A ∩ B = A Consider, p ∈ A ⊂ B x ∈ B Let, p ∈ A ∩ B x ∈ A and x ∈ B x ∈ A and x ∈ A ∴ (A ∩ B) = A

### For any two sets A and B, prove that (i) B ⊂ A ∪ B (ii) A ∩ B ⊂ A

Answers: (i)  Consider, p ∈ B p ∈ B ∪ A ∴ B ⊂ A ∪ B (ii) Consider, p ∈ A ∩ B p ∈ A and p ∈ B ∴  A ∩ B ⊂ A

### If U = {2, 3, 5, 7, 9} is the universal set and A = {3, 7}, B = {2, 5, 7, 9}, then prove that: (i) (A ∪ B)’ = A’ ∩ B’ (ii) (A ∩ B)’ = A’ ∪ B’

Answers: (i)  LHS, A ∪ B = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ B} A ∪ B = {2, 3, 5, 7, 9} (A∪B)’ = Complement of (A∪B) with U. (A∪B)’ = U – (A∪B)’ U – (A∪B)’ = {x ∈ U: x ∉ (A∪B)’} U = {2, 3, 5, 7, 9} (A∪B)’ = {2, 3,...

### Let A = {1, 2, 4, 5} B = {2, 3, 5, 6} C = {4, 5, 6, 7}. Verify the following identities: (i) A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C) (ii) A ∩ (B △ C) = (A ∩ B) △ (A ∩ C)

Answers: (i) LHS, (B ∩ C) = {x: x ∈ B and x ∈ C} (B ∩ C) = {5, 6} A – (B ∩ C) = {x ∈ A: x ∉ (B ∩ C)} A = {1, 2, 4, 5} (B ∩ C) = {5, 6} (A – (B ∩ C)) = {1, 2, 4} RHS, A – B = {x ∈ A: x ∉ B} A = {1,...

### Let A = {1, 2, 4, 5} B = {2, 3, 5, 6} C = {4, 5, 6, 7}. Verify the following identities: (i) A ∩ (B – C) = (A ∩ B) – (A ∩ C) (ii) A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C)

Answers: (i)  LHS, B–C = {x ∈ B: x ∉ C} B = {2, 3, 5, 6} C = {4, 5, 6, 7} B–C = {2, 3} (A ∩ (B – C)) = {x: x ∈ A and x ∈ (B – C)} (A ∩ (B – C)) = {2} RHS, (A ∩ B) = {x: x ∈ A and x ∈ B} (A ∩ B) =...

### Let A = {1, 2, 4, 5} B = {2, 3, 5, 6} C = {4, 5, 6, 7}. Verify the following identities: (i) A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) (ii) A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)

Answers: (i) LHS, (B ∩ C) = {x: x ∈ B and x ∈ C} (B ∩ C) = {5, 6} A ∪ (B ∩ C) = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ (B ∩ C)} A ∪ (B ∩ C) = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6} RHS, (A ∪ B) = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ B} (A ∪ B) = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6}....

### Find the smallest set A such that A ∪ {1, 2} = {1, 2, 3, 5, 9}.

Answer: A ∪ {1, 2} = {1, 2, 3, 5, 9} The smallest set of A, A = {1, 2, 3, 5, 9} – {1, 2} ∴  A = {3, 5, 9}

### If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then Find: (i) A ⋂ B (ii) A ⋃ B

Answers: (i) A ∩ B - A intersection B (Same elements of A and B). A ⊂ B denotes that both A and B have the same elements. ∴ A ∩ B = A (ii)  A ∪ B - A union B (Elements of either A or B or in both A...

### If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} and D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}. Find: (i) A ∪ B (ii) A ∪ C

Answers: (i) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} A ∪ B = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ B} ∴ A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} (ii) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} A ∪ C = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ C} ∴ A ∪ C...

### If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} and D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}. Find: (i) B ∪ C (ii) B ∪ D

Answers: (i) B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ B or x ∈ C} ∴ B ∪ C = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} (ii) B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14} B ∪ D = {x: x ∈ B or x ∈ D}...

### If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} and D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}. Find: (i) A ∪ B ∪ C (ii) A ∪ B ∪ D

Answers: (i) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} A ∪ B = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ B} A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} A ∪ B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ A ∪ B or x ∈ C} ∴ A ∪ B ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 4,...

### If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} and D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}. Find: (i) B ∪ C ∪ D (ii) A ∩ (B ∪ C)

Answers: (i) B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14} B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ B or x ∈ C} B ∪ C = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} B ∪ C ∪ D = {x: x ∈ B ∪ C or x ∈ D} ∴ B ∪ C ∪ D = {4,...

### If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} and D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}. Find: (i) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B ∩ C) (ii) (A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C)

Answers: (i) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8} C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} (A ∩ B) = {x: x ∈ A and x ∈ B} (A ∩ B) = {4, 5} (B ∩ C) = {x: x ∈ B and x ∈ C} (B ∩ C) = {7, 8} (A ∩ B) ∩ (B ∩ C) = {x:...

### Let A = {x: x ∈ N}, B = {x: x = 2n, n ∈ N), C = {x: x = 2n – 1, n ∈ N} and, D = {x: x is a prime natural number} Find: (i) A ∩ B (ii) A ∩ C

Answers: Given, A = {1, 2, 3…..} B = {2, 4, 6, 8…} C = {1, 3, 5, 7……} D = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, …} (i) A ∩ B B ⊂ A = {2, 4, 6, 8…} ∴ A ∩ B = B (ii) A ∩ C C ⊂ A = {1, 3, 5…} ∴ A ∩ C =...

### Let A = {x: x ∈ N}, B = {x: x = 2n, n ∈ N), C = {x: x = 2n – 1, n ∈ N} and, D = {x: x is a prime natural number} Find: (i) A ∩ D (ii) B ∩ C

Answers: Given, A = {1, 2, 3…..} B = {2, 4, 6, 8…} C = {1, 3, 5, 7……} D = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, …} (i) A ∩ D D ⊂ A = {2, 3, 5, 7..} ∴ A ∩ D = D (ii) B ∩ C ∴ B ∩ C = ϕ A natural number cannot be both...

### Let A = {x: x ∈ N}, B = {x: x = 2n, n ∈ N), C = {x: x = 2n – 1, n ∈ N} and, D = {x: x is a prime natural number} Find: (i) B ∩ D (ii) C ∩ D

Answers: Given, A = {1, 2, 3…..} B = {2, 4, 6, 8…} C = {1, 3, 5, 7……} D = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, …} (i) B ∩ D ∴ B ∩ D = 2 The number which is even and a prime number is 2. (ii) C ∩ D C ∩ D = {1, 3, 5,...

### Let A = {ϕ, {ϕ}, 1, {1, ϕ}, 2}. Which of the following are true? (i) {{2}, {1}} ⊄ A (ii) {ϕ, {ϕ}, {1, ϕ}} ⊂ A (iii) {{ϕ}} ⊂ A

Answers: (i) This statement is True Reason - Neither {2} and nor {1} is a subset of set A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - All three {ϕ, {ϕ}, {1, ϕ}} are subset of set A. (iii) True Reason -...

### Let A = {ϕ, {ϕ}, 1, {1, ϕ}, 2}. Which of the following are true? (i) 2 ⊂ A (ii) {2, {1}} ⊄A

Answers: (i) This statement is False Reason - 2 is not a subset of set A, it is an element of set A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - {2, {1}} is not a subset of set A.

### Let A = {ϕ, {ϕ}, 1, {1, ϕ}, 2}. Which of the following are true? (i) {1} ∈ A (ii) {2, ϕ} ⊂ A

Answers: (i) This statement is False Reason - 1 is not an element of A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - {2, Φ} is a subset of A.

### Let A = {ϕ, {ϕ}, 1, {1, ϕ}, 2}. Which of the following are true? (i) ϕ ∈ A (ii) {ϕ} ∈ A

Answers: (i) This statement is True Reason - Φ belongs to set A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - {Φ} is an element of set A.

### Let A = {{1, 2, 3}, {4, 5}, {6, 7, 8}}. Determine which of the following is true or false: (i) ϕ ∈ A (ii) ϕ ⊂ A

Answers: (i) This statement is False Reason - Φ is a subset of A, not an element of A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - Φ is a subset of every set, so it is a subset of A.

### Let A = {{1, 2, 3}, {4, 5}, {6, 7, 8}}. Determine which of the following is true or false: (i) {6, 7, 8} ∈ A (ii) {4, 5} ⊂ A

Answers: (i) This statement is True. Reason = {6, 7, 8} ∈ A. (ii) This statement is True Reason = {{4, 5}} is a subset of A.

### Let A = {{1, 2, 3}, {4, 5}, {6, 7, 8}}. Determine which of the following is true or false: (i) 1 ∈ A (ii) {1, 2, 3} ⊂ A

Answers: (i) This statement is False Reason - 1 is not an element of A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - Correct Form = {1,2,3} ∈ A

### Let A = {a, b,{c, d}, e}. Which of the following statements are false and why? (i) ϕ A (ii) {ϕ} ⊂ A

Answers: (i) This statement is False Reason - ϕ ⊂ A (ii) This statement is False Reason - ϕ ⊂ A

### Let A = {a, b,{c, d}, e}. Which of the following statements are false and why? (i) {a, b, e} A (ii) {a, b, c} ⊂ A

Answers: (i) This statement is False Reason - {a, b, e} does not belong to A. Correct Form = {a, b, e} ⊂ A (ii) This statement is False Reason - {a, b, c} is not a subset of A

### Let A = {a, b,{c, d}, e}. Which of the following statements are false and why? (i) a ⊂ A. (ii) {a, b, e} ⊂ A

Answers: (i) This statement is False Reason - a is not a subset of A and belongs to A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - {a, b, e} is a subset of A

### Let A = {a, b,{c, d}, e}. Which of the following statements are false and why? (i) {{c, d}} ⊂ A (ii) a A

Answers: (i) This statement is True Reason - {c, d} is a subset of A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - a belongs to A

### Let A = {a, b,{c, d}, e}. Which of the following statements are false and why? (i) {c, d} ⊂ A (ii) {c, d} A

Answers: (i) This statement is False Reason - {c, d} is not a subset of A but it belong to A. (ii) This statement is True Reason - {c, d} belongs to A

### Which of the following statements are correct? Write a correct form of each of the incorrect statements. (i) ϕ {a, b} (ii) ϕ ⊂ {a, b, c} (iii) {x: x + 3 = 3}= ϕ

Answers: (i) This statement is incorrect Correct Form = ϕ ⊂ {a, b} (ii) This statement is the correct form. (iii) This statement is incorrect Correct Form = {x: x + 3 = 3} ≠ ϕ

### Which of the following statements are correct? Write a correct form of each of the incorrect statements. (i) {b, c} ⊂ {a,{b, c}} (ii) {a, b} ⊂ {a,{b, c}}

Answers: (i) This statement is incorrect Correct Form = {b, c} ∈ {a,{b, c}} (ii) {a, b} is not a subset of given set. Correct Form =  {a, b}⊄{a,{b, c}}

### Which of the following statements are correct? Write a correct form of each of the incorrect statements. (i) a {{a}, b} (ii) {a} ⊂ {{a}, b}

Answers: (iii) This statement is incorrect Correct Form = {a} ∈ {{a}, b} (iv) This statement is incorrect Correct Form = {a} ∈ {{a}, b}

### Which of the following statements are correct? Write a correct form of each of the incorrect statements. (i) a ⊂ {a, b, c} (ii) {a} {a, b, c}

Answers: (i) This statement is incorrect Correct Form = a ∈{a,b,c} (ii) This statement is incorrect Correct Form = {a} ⊂ {a, b, c}

### Write which of the following statements are true? Justify your answer. (i) The sets P = {a} and B = {{a}} are equal. (ii) The sets A={x: x is a letter of word “LITTLE”} AND, b = {x: x is a letter of the word “TITLE”} are equal.

Answers: (i) This statement is False P = {a} B = {{a}} But {a} = P B = {P} P and B are not equal (ii) This statement is True A = For “LITTLE” A = {L, I, T, E} = {E, I, L, T} B = For “TITLE” B = {T,...

### Write which of the following statements are true? Justify your answer. (i) The set of all integers is contained in the set of all rational numbers. (ii) The set of all crows is contained in the set of all birds.

Answers: (i) The statement is True Reason - A rational number is represented by the form p/q where p and q are integers and (q not equal to 0) keeping q = 1 we can place any number as p. Which then...

### Write which of the following statements are true? Justify your answer. (i) The set of all rectangles is contained in the set of all squares. (ii) The set of all rectangle is contained in the set of all squares.

Answers: (i) The statement is False Reason - Every square can be a rectangle, but every rectangle cannot be a square. (ii) The statement is False Reason - Every square can be a rectangle, but every...

### Decide among the following sets, which are subsets of which: A = {x: x satisfies x2 – 8x + 12=0}, B = {2,4,6}, C = {2,4,6,8,….}, D = {6}

Answer: A = x2 – 8x + 12=0 (x–6) (x–2) =0 x = 2 or 6 Then, A = {2, 6} B = {2, 4, 6} C = {2, 4, 6, 8} D = {6} Thus, D⊂A⊂B⊂C

### State whether the following statements are true or false: (i) {a} ∈ {a,b,c} (ii) {a, b} = {a, a, b, b, a} (iii) The set {x: x + 8 = 8} is the null set.

Answers: (iii) The statement is False Reason - a is a subset of the set. So, it cannot be an element. (iv) The statement is True Reason - Repetition of elements is not allowed in a set. (v) The...

### State whether the following statements are true or false: (i) 1 ∈ { 1,2,3} (ii) a ⊂ {b,c,a}

Answers: (i) The statement is True Reason - 1 is present in the given set. (ii) The statement is False Reason - a is an element of a set and not a subset.

### Which of the following statements are true? Give a reason to support your answer. (v) {a, b, a, b, a, b,….} is an infinite set. (i) {a, b, c} and {1, 2, 3} are equivalent sets. (ii) A set can have infinitely many subsets.

Answers: (v) The statement is False. Reason - Repetition is not allowed in the elements of a set. (vi) The statement is True. Reason - The equivalent sets have same number of elements. (vii) The...

### Which of the following statements are true? Give a reason to support your answer. (i) Every subset of a finite set is finite. (ii) Every set has a proper subset.

Answers: (iii) The statement is True Reason - Basically, the smaller part of something which is finite can never be infinite. (iv) The statement is False Reason - Null set or empty set does not have...

### Which of the following statements are true? Give a reason to support your answer. (i) For any two sets A and B either A B or B A. (ii) Every subset of an infinite set is infinite.

Answers: (i) The statement is False. Reason - It is not required for the two sets A and B to be A B or B A. (ii) The statement is False. Reason - It is finite subset of infinite set which belongs to...

### Show that the set of letters needed to spell “CATARACT” and the set of letters needed to spell “TRACT” are equal.

In the word “CATARACT” , the distinct letters = {C, A, T, R} = {A, C, R, T} In the word “TRACT”, the distinct letters = {T, R, A, C} = {A, C, R, T} Excluding the repetition of letters, both the sets...

### Which of the following sets are equal? A = {x: x ∈ N, x < 3} B = {1, 2}, C= {3, 1} D = {x: x ∈ N, x is odd, x < 5} E = {1, 2, 1, 1} F = {1, 1, 3}

Set A = {1, 2} Set B = {1, 2} Set C = {3, 1} Set D = {1, 3} Set E = {1, 2} Set F = {1, 3} Equal Sets: (i) A, B, E (II) C, D, F

### From the sets given below, select equal sets and equivalent sets. A = {0, a}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4}, C = {4, 8, 12}, D = {3, 1, 2, 4}, E = {1, 0}, F = {8, 4, 12}, G = {1, 5, 7, 11}, H = {a, b}

Equivalent sets: (i) Set A, Set E, Set H - Because of two identical elements (ii) Set B, Set D, Set G - Because of four identical elements (iii) Set C, Set F - Because of three identical elements...

### Are the following pairs of sets equal? Give reasons. (i) A = {2, 3}, B = {x: x is a solution of x2 + 5x + 6= 0} (ii) A={x: x is a letter of the word “WOLF”} B={x: x is letter of word “FOLLOW”}

Answers: (i) A = {2, 3} B = x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 x2 + 3x + 2x + 6 = 0 x(x+3) + 2(x+3) = 0 (x+3) (x+2) = 0 x = -2 and -3 x = {–2, –3} A and B are not equal. (ii) A = Every letter in WOLF A = {W, O, L, F}...

### From the sets given below, pair the equivalent sets: A= {1, 2, 3}, B = {t, p, q, r, s}, C = {α, β, γ}, D = {a, e, i, o, u}.

If the number of elements is same but the elements are different in a set, then it is said to be an equivalent sets. (i) A = {1, 2, 3} The number of elements = 3 (ii) B = {t, p, q, r, s} The number...

### Are the following sets equal? A={x: x is a letter in the word reap}, B={x: x is a letter in the word paper}, C={x: x is a letter in the word rope}.

(i) A - x is the letters in the word reap A ={R, E, A, P} = {A, E, P, R} (ii) B - x is the letters in the word paper B = {P, A, E, R} = {A, E, P, R} (iii) C - x is the letters in the word rope C =...

### Which of the following sets are finite and which are infinite? (i) Set of concentric circles in a plane. (ii) Set of letters of the English Alphabets.

Answers: (i) This set is an infinite set. Reason - Infinite set of concentric circles can be drawn in a plane. (ii) This set is a finite set. Reason - Only 26 letters in English Alphabets are...

### Which of the following sets are equal? (i) A = {1, 2, 3} (ii) B = {x ∈ R:x2–2x+1=0} (iii) C = (1, 2, 2, 3} (iv) D = {x ∈ R : x3 – 6×2+11x – 6 = 0}.

When all the elements of two sets are similar, then those two sets are considered to be the same. (i) A = {1, 2, 3} (ii) B ={x ∈ R: x2–2x+1=0} x2–2x+1 = 0 (x–1)2 = 0 ∴ x = 1. B = {1} (iii) C= {1, 2,...

### Which of the following sets are finite and which are infinite? (i) {x ∈ Z: x < 5} (ii) {x ∈ R: 0 < x < 1}.

Answers: (i) This set is an infinite set. Reason - The integers less than 5 can be infinity. (ii) This set is an infinite set. Reason - In between two real numbers, the real numbers are...

### Which of the following sets are finite and which are infinite? (i) {x ∈ N: x > 5} (ii) {x ∈ N: x < 200}

Answers: (i) This set is an infinite set. Reason - Natural numbers greater than 5 can go till infinity. (ii) This set is a finite set. Reason - The natural numbers start from 1 and there are 199...

### Which of the following are examples of empty set? (i) {x: x2–2=0 and x is rational}. (ii) {x: x is a natural number, x < 8 and simultaneously x > 12}. (iii) {x: x is a point common to any two parallel lines}.

Answers: (i) It is an empty set. Reason - There isn't any natural number whose square is 2. (ii) It is an empty set. Reason - There isn't any natural number which is less than 8 and greater than 12....

### Which of the following are examples of empty set? (i) Set of all even natural numbers divisible by 5. (ii) Set of all even prime numbers.

Answers: (i) It is not an empty set Reason - All the numbers ending with 0. Except 0 is divisible by 5 and is even natural number. (ii) It is not an empty set. Reason - Two is the only even prime...

### A letter is chosen at random from the word ‘ ’. Find the probability that letter is (i) a vowel (ii) a consonant

We are given the word ‘$ASSASSINATION$’. The total letters in the given word $= 13$. Number of vowels in the given word $= 6$. Number of consonants in the given word $= 7$. Then, the sample space...

### Three coins are tossed once. Find the probability of getting (iii) at least 2 heads (iv) at most 2 heads

When a coin is tossed the possible outcomes are either a Head $\left( H \right)$ or Tail $\left( T \right)$. Here, coin is tossed three times then the sample space contains, \$S{\text{ }} = {\text{...

### List all the elements of the following sets: (i) E = {x : x is a month of a year not having 31 days} (ii) F={x : x is a letter of the word “MISSISSIPPI”}

Answers: (i) E = {x : x is a month of a year not having 31 days} The months may have 28, 29, 30, 31 days. Months having 31 days are February, April, June, September, November. ∴ E: {February, April,...

### List all the elements of the following sets: (i) C = {x : x is an integer, -1/2 < x < 9/2} (ii) D={x : x is a vowel in the word “EQUATION”}

Answers: (i)  x - integer and is between -1/2 and 9/2 Then, x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ∴ C = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} (ii)  The vowels in the word ‘EQUATION’ = E, U, A, I, O ∴ D = {A, E, I, O,...

### List all the elements of the following sets: (i) A={x : x2≤ 10, x ∈ Z} (ii) B = {x : x = 1/(2n-1), 1 ≤ n ≤ 5}

Answers: (i)  x - integer (+ or -) x2 ≤ 10 (-3)2 = 9 < 10 (-2)2 = 4 < 10 (-1)2 = 1 < 10 02 = 0 < 10 12 = 1 < 10 22 = 4 < 10 32 = 9 < 10 The square root of next integers are...

### Describe the following sets in set-builder form: (i) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} (ii) B = {1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, …..}

Answers: (i) Set-builder form of A = {x : x ∈ N, x<7} This set builder form can be explained as x is such that x belongs to the natural number also is less than 7. (ii)  Set-builder form of B =...

### Describe the following sets in set-builder form: (i) C = {0, 3, 6, 9, 12,….} (ii) D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15}

Answers: (i) Set-builder form of C = {x : x = 3n, n ∈ Z+} Z+ - the set of positive integers This set builder form can be explained as x is such that C is the set of multiples of 3 including 0. (ii)...

### Describe the following sets in set-builder form: (i) E = {0} (ii) {1, 4, 9, 16,…,100}

Answers: (i) Set-builder form of E = {x : x = 0} This set builder form can be explained as x is such that E is an integer which is equal to 0. (ii) Set-builder form = {x2: x ∈ N, 1≤ x ≤10} In this,...

### Describe the following sets in set-builder form: (i) {2, 4, 6, 8,….} (ii) {5, 25, 125, 625}

Answers: (i)  Set-builder form = {x: x = 2n, n ∈ N} This set builder form can be explained as x is such that the given set are multiples of 2. (ii) Set-builder form = {5n: n ∈ N, 1≤ n ≤ 4} In this,...