List the various abiotic environmental factors.
List the various abiotic environmental factors.

Solution: Abiotic environmental factors are formed by all the non-living components of an ecosystem which includes the following:

  • Temperature –

It is one of the most important elements that vary seasonally on land, decreasing progressively from the equator to the poles, and from plains to mountain heights. Their range is vast, ranging from sub-zero temperatures in arctic regions to summer temperatures of more than 50 degrees Celsius in tropical deserts. The average temperature in some unusual environments, such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents and thermal springs, exceeds 100 degrees Celsius. eurythermal organisms can endure a wide range of temperatures, such as birds and mammals, but stenothermal organisms can only withstand a small range of temperatures, such as polar bears.

  • Water –

Water is necessary for life to exist. pH, water temperature, chemical composition, and other factors are important for marine organisms. Water salinity of fewer than 5 parts per thousand in inland water, 30-35 parts per thousand in seawater, and so on the effect it.

Euryhaline organisms can tolerate a wide range of salinity, but stenohaline organisms can only tolerate a restricted range of salinity. Because of osmotic difficulties caused by high salt, most freshwater organisms cannot survive in seawater for lengthy periods of time, and vice versa.

  • Soil –

The properties and nature of soil vary by location and are influenced by the following elements.


-soil development 

-Weathering process

The water holding capacity and percolation of soil are determined by factors such as grain size, aggregation, and soil chemistry. Other factors, like pH, terrain, mineral content, and so on, influence the sort of plant that can thrive in a given environment.

  • Light –

Photosynthesis, which releases oxygen, is carried out by all autotrophs with the help of light. Because they are obscured by large trees, tiny herbs and shrubs in forests have adapted to photosynthesis at very low light intensities. In addition, most plants rely on sunshine to fulfill their photoperiodic requirements for flowering. Several animals use diurnal and seasonal light intensity differences as cues to time their reproductive, feeding, and migratory behaviors. Because the Sun is the ultimate source of light, it is strongly related to temperature on land. It is always black in the deep oceans. Solar radiation must have a certain spectral quality in order for life to exist. The UV component of light is detrimental to many organisms. For marine plants functioning at various oceanic depths, multiple visible spectrum components are available. As a result, different algae kinds, such as brown, green, and red algae, can be found at different depths in the middle, upper, and lowest layers of water.