Uttarakhand Board of School Education (UKBSE) has prepared a comprehensive syllabus for Class 11 Biology for the board exam of 2021-22. It is a must that students study and analyze the syllabus before they start studying the subject. Moreover, a sound understanding, knowledge, and application of chapters and concepts given in Class 11 is important for further studies. Therefore, in this article, we will take a detailed look at the Uttarakhand Board Class 11 Biology syllabus to better understand what all chapters are to be covered.
Biology is one of the most interesting yet challenging subjects in Class 11. The entire subject of 100 marks is divided into two papers — theory paper of 70 marks and practical of 30 marks. Basics of the subject studied in previous classes will help the students in building a strong base and understanding of the chapters in Class 11.
Uttarakhand Board Class 11 Biology Theory Syllabus
The entire syllabus has been divided into 5 major units. These units have been provided below:
Number of Chapters in the Unit
Diversity in the Living World
Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals
Cell- Structure and Functions
Plant Physiology and Human Physiology are the longest units and thus carry the most weightage. The unit ‘Plant Physiology’ is essential for understanding the practical work in the laboratories as well.
Given below is the list of chapters–
Chapter-1: The Living World
What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomymuseums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.
Chapter-2: Biological Classification
Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.
Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.
Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom
Salient features and classification of animals non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category).
(No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)
Unit-II Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
Morphology and modifications: Internal Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).
Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
Anatomy and functions of different tissues.
Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals
Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)
Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function
Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; envelope cell; membrane cell, wall cell; organelles cell – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.
Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.
Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance
Unit-IV Plant Physiology
Chapter-11: Transport in Plants
Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis.
Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition
Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.
Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants
Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development
Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.
Unit-V Human Physiology
Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption
Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.
Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.
Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination
Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.
Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement
Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.
Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination
Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear
Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration
Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease.
Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.
Uttarakhand Board Class 11 Biology Practical Syllabus
The practical syllabus has not been reduced from the previous year. The following experiments must be performed in the lab:
- Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems
- To study types of the root (tap and adventitious); stem (herbaceous and woody); leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple, and compound).
- Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
- Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels
- Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
- Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins, and fats.
- Test for the presence of urea in urine.
- Test for the presence of bile pigment in urine.
The student must also undertake the observational study of the following:
- Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of the plant cell (palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem)
- Study of different modifications in roots, stems, and leaves.
- Study and identification of different types of inflorescence.
- Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.
- Observation and comments on the experimental set up for showing a) Anaerobic respiration b) Photoperiodism c) Effect of apical bud removal d) Suction due to transpiration.
- Study of the human skeleton and different types of joints with the help of virtual images/models only
The use of live models may be substituted entirely by virtual models for online learning. Some lab studies can be undertaken entirely virtually. The students must submit their lab work and observations before the final exam on the dates released by their respective schools. There may be a reduction in the practical syllabus, but that has not yet been confirmed. The Observation (Spotting) Exams have a short written component. A teacher may show a virtual specimen or a preserved or fresh specimen (such as a leaf, a petal, a seed, etc.) or a slide under a microscope and ask relevant questions. There may be an external examiner present during these exams.
The laboratory practice is a logical extension of what the students study during theory classes. The students must identify the structures and processes of plants and animal structures that are covered in the theoretical learning. This is to ensure that the students have a reasonable understanding of the biological diversity around them. The students are also expected to know the parts of a microscope and must use a microscope to observe slides. The 30 marks are divided evenly between the lab record and the spotting examination.
Frequently Asked Questions of UKBSE Board Biology Class 11
Q1. What are some tips for the UKBSE Board Class 11 Biology Exam?
Answer: Students must be familiar with the exam syllabus, question paper pattern, and should focus on crucial areas (refer to important questions, sample papers to get an idea), and stick to a study schedule to prepare for the exam. They must also devote a significant amount of time to revising and practicing numerical problems.
Q2. How should students prepare for the Uttarakhand Board Class 11 Biology Exam?
Answer: Students should create organized timetables for a subject like Biology. They need to study the basic concepts of Biology, which their teachers teach. After completing each topic, they should practice the questions given at the end of each chapter. After the completion of the entire Biology syllabus, they need to attempt the full-length mock tests properly. These will help students revise the concepts for their final examinations.
Q3. When do students have to submit my practical file?
Answer: Your school will give you dates to submit your practical files/notebooks. Please contact your school and confirm. Typically, the deadline is in the last half of January.
Q4. From where should students prepare for Class 11 Biology Exam?
Answer: Students can solve the Class 11 questions from their UKBSE Board state text books. They can also go through the last ten years’ question papers to familiarize themselves with the entire coursework.
Q5. Will the examination be held online?
Answer: No, as of now, the examination is set to be held offline. Please be aware of any further notifications issued by your school. As the pandemic recedes, the schools are planning to start operating as usual. However, new plans may be undertaken as the situation develops.
Q6. Will the syllabus be reduced for the academic session 2021-22 as well?
Answer: Keeping in mind the Covid-19 restrictions, the UKBSE Board had reduced the syllabus for all the subjects by 25% for the year 2020-21 for the convenience of students. However, no such announcement has been made for the academic session 2021-22. Students are advised to keep visiting the official website of the UKBSE Board – https://ubse.uk.gov.in/ to stay updated.