Chemistry

### Arrange the bonds in order of increasing ionic character in the molecules: LiF, , and .

Solution: The difference in electronegativity between constituent atoms determines the ionic character of a molecule. As a result, the greater the difference, the greater the ionic character of a...

### Explain with the help of suitable example polar covalent bond.

Solution: The bond pair of electrons are not shared equally when two unique atoms with different electronegativities join to form a covalent bond. The bond pair is attracted to the nucleus of an...

### Define electronegativity. How does it differ from electron gain enthalpy?

Solution: "Electronegativity refers to an atom's ability to attract a bond pair of electrons towards itself in a chemical compound." Sr. No Electronegativity Electron affinity 1 A tendency to...

### Write the significance/applications of dipole moment.

Solution: There is a difference in electro-negativities of constituents of the atom in a heteronuclear molecule, which causes polarisation. As a result, one end gains a positive charge, while the...

### Although both and are triatomic molecules, the shape of the molecule is bent while that of is linear. Explain this on the basis of dipole moment.

Solution: $CO_2$ has a dipole moment of 0 according to experimental results. And it's only possible if the molecule's shape is linear, because the dipole moments of the C-O bond are equal and...

### Use Lewis symbols to show electron transfer between the following atoms to form cations and anions :(iii) Al and N.

Solution: Below is a list of Lewis symbols. To form a cation, a metal atom loses one or more electrons, while a nonmetal atom gains one or more electrons. Ionic bonds are formed between cations and...

### Use Lewis symbols to show electron transfer between the following atoms to form cations and anions : (i) K and S (ii) Ca and O

Solution: Below is a list of Lewis symbols. To form a cation, a metal atom loses one or more electrons, while a nonmetal atom gains one or more electrons. Ionic bonds are formed between cations and...

### Write the resonance structures for , and

Solution: Resonance is the phenomenon that allows a molecule to be expressed in multiple ways, none of which fully explain the molecule's properties. The molecule's structure is called a resonance...

### can be represented by structures 1 and 2 shown below. Can these two structures be taken as the canonical forms of the resonance hybrid representing ? If not, give reasons for the same.

Solution: The positions of the atoms remain constant in canonical forms, but the positions of the electrons change. The positions of atoms change in the given canonical forms. As a result, they...

### Explain the important aspects of resonance with reference to the ion.

Solution: However, while the carbonate ion cannot be represented by a single structure, the properties of the ion can be described by two or more different resonance structures. The actual structure...

### Define Bond length.

Solution: Bond length is defined as the equilibrium distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.

### How do you express the bond strength in terms of bond order?

Solution: During the formation of a molecule, the extent of bonding that occurs between two atoms is represented by the bond strength of the molecule. As the bond strength increases, the bond...

### Although geometries of and molecules are distorted tetrahedral, bond angle in water is less than that of Ammonia. Discuss.

Solution: Ammonia's central atom (N) has one lone pair and three bond pairs. In water, the central atom (O) has two lone pairs and two bond pairs. As a result, the two bond pairs repel the two lone...

### Discuss the shape of the following molecules using the VSEPR model:

Solution: $BeCl_2$ The central atom does not have a lone pair, but it does have two bond pairs. As a result, its shape is AB2, or linear. $BCl_3$ The central atom has three bond pairs but no lone...

### Write the favourable factors for the formation of an ionic bond.

Solution: Ionic bonds are formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. As a result, the ability of neutral atoms to lose or gain electrons is required for the...

### Define the octet rule. Write its significance and limitations

Solution: “Atoms can combine either by transferring valence electrons from one atom to another or by sharing their valence electrons in order to achieve the closest inert gas configuration by having...

### Draw the Lewis structures for the following molecules and ions :

Solution: The lewis dot structures are:

### Write Lewis symbols for the following atoms and ions: Sand and and

Solution: For S and S2- A sulphur atom has only 6 valence electrons, which is a very small number. As a result, the Lewis dot symbol for the letter S is       The presence of a...

### Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements :e) N f) Br

Solution: Nitrogen atoms have only five valence electrons in total. As a result, the Lewis dot symbol for N is     Bromine, because the atom has only seven valence electrons. As a result,...

### Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements :c) B d) O

Solution: Boron atoms have only three valence electrons, which is a very small number. As a result, the Lewis dot symbols for B are as follows:     The oxygen atom has only six valence...

### Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements : a) Mg b) Na

Solution: Only two valence electrons exist in the magnesium atom. As a result, the Lewis dot symbols for Mg are as follows:     Only one valence electron exists in the sodium atom. As a...

### Explain the formation of a chemical bond.

Answer: "A chemical bond is an attractive force that holds a chemical species' constituents together." For chemical bond formation, many theories have been proposed, including valence shell electron...

Solution:

### Elements of group 14 (a) exhibit oxidation state of only (b) exhibit oxidation state of and (c) form and ion (d) form and ions

Solution: (b) Group 14 components have 4 valence electrons. Thus, bunch oxidation status is $+4$. In any case, the lower oxidation state turns out to be progressively steady because of the inactive...

### An aqueous solution of borax is

Solution: (b) Borax is a strong base salt (NaOH) and a feeble corrosive $\left(\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{BO}_{3}\right)$. In this way, it is essential thing in nature.

### Give one method for industrial preparation and one for laboratory preparation of CO and each.

Solution: Carbon dioxide CO2 can be ready in the lab through the activity of weaken hydrochloric corrosive on calcium carbonate. Their response is as per the following: CO2 is industrially ready by...

### Write balanced equations for: (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

Solution: The balanced equations are as follow:

### A certain salt gives the following results. (i) Its aqueous solution is alkaline to litmus. (ii) It swells up to a glassy material on strong heating. (iii) When conc. is added to a hot solution of , a white crystal of an acid separates out Write equations for all the above reactions and identify X, , and .

Solution: The salt given to litmus is antacid. $X$ is, subsequently, a salt with a solid base, and a feeble corrosive. When $X$ is warmed unnecessarily, it additionally enlarges to frame material...

### When metal is treated with sodium hydroxide, a white precipitate (A) is obtained, which is soluble in excess of to give soluble complex (B). Compound (A) is soluble in dilute HCI to form compound (C). The compound (A) when heated strongly gives (D), which is used to extract the metal. Identify (X), (A), (B), (C) and (D). Write suitable equations to support their identities.

Solution: The given metal $X$ gives sodium hydroxide to a white accelerate, and the encourage breaks up surpassing sodium hydroxide. $X$ must, consequently, be made of aluminum. The acquired white...

### (a) Classify the following oxides as neutral, acidic, basic or amphoteric. (B) Write suitable equations to show their nature.

Solution: $\rightarrow$ CO $=$ Neutral $\rightarrow \mathrm{B}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}=$ Acidic Being acidic, it responds with bases to frame salts. It responds with $\mathrm{NaOH}$ to frame sodium...

### What are allotropes? Sketch the structure of two allotropes of carbon namely diamond and graphite. What is the impact of structure on the physical properties of two allotropes?

Solution: Allotropy is the presence of a component in more than one structure, having diverse actual properties however similar substance properties. Diamond's solid  3-D construction makes it a...

### How would you explain the lower atomic radius of Ga as compared to Al?

Solution: A tomic sweep (in pm) Aluminum Gallium In spite of the fact that Ga has more than one shell than Al, it is more modest in size than Al. This is on the grounds that the $3 \mathrm{~d}$...

### Explain why is there a phenomenal decrease in ionization enthalpy from carbon to silicon?

Solution: Carbon ionizing enthalpy (the primary component in bunch 14 ) is exceptionally high $(1086 \mathrm{~kJ}/\mathrm{mol})$. That is normal on account of its little size. Nonetheless, there is...

### Nitric oxide reacts with and gives nitrosyl bromide as per reaction given below: When mol of NO and mol of are mixed in a closed container at a constant temperature, of NOBr is obtained at equilibrium. Calculate the equilibrium amount of NO and .

Answer: The given reaction is: $2 \mathrm{NO}_{(\mathrm{g})}+\mathrm{Br}_{2(\mathrm{~g})}$ $\rightarrow$ $2 \mathrm{NOBr}_{(\mathrm{g})}$   Now, $2 \mathrm{~mol}$ of $\mathrm{NOBr}$ is formed...