There is a difference in electro-negativities of constituents of the atom in a heteronuclear molecule, which causes polarisation. As a result, one end gains a positive charge, while the other gains a negative charge. Molecules are said to have a dipole moment as a result of this.
The dipole moment (mu) is the product of the distance between the centers of negative and positive charges and the magnitude of the charge. The dipole moment is a vector quantity that is represented by an arrow with the head of the arrow pointing towards the negative center and the tail pointing towards the positive center.
It is a measurement of a bond’s polarity. It distinguishes between non-polar and polar bonds because all non-polar molecules have the same dipole moment. It also determines a molecule’s ionic character.