1. Some varieties of wheat are known as spring wheat while others are called winter wheat. The former variety is sown, and planted in spring and is harvested by the end of the same season. However, winter varieties, if planted in spring, fail to flower or produce mature grains within a span of a flowering season. Explain, why?

Solution: They would generally fail to flower or yield ripe grain during a flowering season if planted in the spring, thus they are sown in the autumn. After that, they germinate, and seedlings...

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13. A rubber band stretches and reverts to its original position. Bubble gum stretches, but it would not return to its original position. Is there any difference between the two processes? Discuss it with respect to plant growth (Hint: Elasticity (reversible) Plasticity (irreversible))

Solution: According to physics, if a substance regains its previous shape once deforming forces are removed, the substance is said to exhibit elasticity. Plasticity, on the other hand, is defined as...

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Observe the diagram and answer the following.
a. Which group of plants exhibits these two types of cells?

b. What is the first product of the C4 cycle?

c. Which enzyme is there in bundle sheath cells and mesophyll cells?

Solution: (a) Bundle sheath cells and mesophyll cells are characteristics of monocot plants. (b) Oxaloacectic acid (OAA) is the first stable compound produced in the C4 cycle. (c) PEP carboxylase,...

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In the figure given below, the lighter line (upper) indicates the action spectrum for photosynthesis and the black line (lower) indicates the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a. Answer the following
a. What does the action spectrum indicate? How can we plot an action spectrum?

b. How can we derive an absorption spectrum for any substance?

Solution: a. The photosynthetic rate is indicated by the action spectrum. The measurement is oxygen release, which can be compared to the action spectrum by looking at the oxygen releases on the...

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Suppose Euphorbia and Maize are grown in the tropical area.
a. Which one of them do you think will be able to survive under such conditions?

b. Which one of them is more efficient in terms of photosynthetic activity?

c. What difference do you think are there in their leaf anatomy?

Solution: a. Maize is a C4 plant, while euphorbia is a CAM plant. Both are capable of surviving in tropical climates. b. Maize is a C4 plant, which means it has higher photosynthetic efficiency. c....

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A cyclic process is occurring in a C3 plant, which is light-dependent and needs O2. This process doesn’t produce energy rather it consumes energy.
a. Can you name the given process?

b. Is it essential for survival?

c. What are the end products of this process?

d. Where does it occur?

Solution: (a) Photorespiration, is a process that occurs in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. (b) Photorespiration happens when there is an abundance of oxygen rather than carbon dioxide,...

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