Microbes in Human Welfare

(a) Discuss the major programs that the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, has initiated for saving major Indian rivers from pollution.
(b) Ganga has recently been declared the national river. Discuss the implication with respect to pollution of this river.

(a) The Government of India's Ministry of Environment and Forests has launched two plans: i. Action Plan for the Ganga ii. Action Plan for the Yamuna These proposals called for a large number of...

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Activated sludge should have the ability to settle quickly so that it can:
a. be rapidly pumped back from sedimentation tank to aeration tank

b. absorb pathogenic bacteria present in wastewater while sinking to the bottom of the settling tank

c. be discarded and anaerobically digested

d. absorb colloidal organic matter.

Solution: Option (a) is the answer. To be pumped back to the aeration tank, the activated sludge must settle fast. 'Be swiftly pumped back from the sedimentation tank to the aeration tank' is the...

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Big holes in Swiss cheese are made by a:
a. a machine

b. a bacterium that produces methane gas

c. a bacterium producing a large amount of carbon dioxide

d. a fungus that releases a lot of gases during its metabolic activities.

Solution: Option (c) is the answer. When Propionibacterium shermani consumes lactic acid, it produces carbon dioxide and bubbles. Big holes appear in the Swiss cheese as a result of the bubbles. As...

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What would happen if oxygen availability to activated sludge flocs is reduced?
a. It will slow down the rate of degradation of organic matter

b. The centre of flocs will become anoxic, which would cause the death of bacteria and eventually breakage of flocs.

c. Flocs would increase in size as anaerobic bacteria would grow around flocs.

d. Protozoa would grow in large numbers

Solution: The microorganisms' ability to break down and destroy the organic materials in sewage or activated sludge is dependent on oxygen. The degradation rate will slow if the oxygen availability...

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The technology of biogas production from cow dung was developed in India largely due to the efforts of:
a. Gas Authority of India

b. Oil and Natural Gas Commission

c. Indian Agricultural Research Institute and Khadi & Village Industries Commission

d. Indian Oil Corporation

Solution: Option (c) is the answer. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) and the Khadi & Village Industries Commission (KVIC) were instrumental in developing the method for...

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